The first and second generation of DNA sequencing was developed by ______.
In the olden days, scientists were interested in the genetic code. They’d isolate DNA fragments off of people’s skin and then look for homologies between them and the code for the parts of the code that they shared (e.g. hair color, eye color, blood types, etc.). Now scientists are looking at the DNA itself and how it relates to other parts of the human genome to develop a more complete picture of what our genes are like.
Scientists think that the first two generations of DNA sequencing were not only a good idea, but a good idea for the overall progress of the genome project. It made it easier to isolate the genes of different people and then look for homologies between them. The last two generations of DNA sequencing are more advanced, but still only look at portions of the DNA.
Since the last two generations of DNA sequencing are even less accurate than the first two, more work is needed to fully understand the genetic make-up of different people. Also, the last two generations can only be considered to be a partial portrait since they have not taken into account the last two lines of the human genome, which contains the genes that make up our very souls, not our bodies.
It is not at all clear that the new technology will make things any better, but some people are concerned that their DNA is being misread, even genetically. Some have suggested that the new technology may include something called a “biometric”, which could alter a person’s DNA in the brain to make it easier to track.
This is not a new concern. The human genome project was begun in 1990 by Francis Collins, and after some years of research started a project to sequence the entire human genome. It is now known that the human genome contains millions of genetic variations and that there may be as many as one hundred thousand different variations in the human genome. Even if every individual in the human race is identical, this would mean that there are as many as eleven billion people in the entire world.
This number is a lot. And the whole idea of sequencing the human genome is to figure out what makes us unique from all the other species on the planet. Scientists currently have about two hundred samples of DNA from three hundred people. So basically, the first step in determining human origins is determining who we are. When it comes to determining which people have genes which are unique to them, there are two basic approaches. One is to look at all the genes in a family.
So it’s possible to find a gene which is unique to a person, or at least that is common to them all. If you have a gene which is common to all your family, you know you’re a member of a particular race. This is what DNA profiling does, and it is the second approach. The other method would be to compare the sequence of DNA from a single person to that of a family. With that you can identify who that person is.
One of the big ethical questions about the human genome is whether or not you can identify everyone by sequencing a single person. If you can, then there’s the question of whether or not you should. We have all sorts of companies and government agencies working on gene sequencing. Some organizations, like the Human Genome Project (which is led by the National Human Genome Research Institute), have been putting together genomes from individuals and comparing them to those of a family.
There are obviously a lot of ethical questions, but the most important is the one of when you should disclose what you’re doing. There are two primary views on what you should or shouldn’t disclose. The first is for some reason, the second is because of the possible impact of the results on genetic research in general. Most research in genetics is done by private companies, so it’s not like the government has a lot of oversight.